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•	 Incoming plant material sometimes             impact BCAs for 8 weeks or longer. Ap-            such as Milstop and Zerotol all have some
   arrives with a higher pest population         plying one of these pesticides may end a          detrimental effects on one or more BCAs.
   than is acceptable to begin a biocontrol      biocontrol program for the entire season!         That doesn’t mean they can never be used
   program. Pesticides with short residual       Better to “measure twice and cut once,” as        in a biocontrol program, but it does mean
   activity may be required to clean up          the carpenters say!                               the negative effects need to be understood
   before releasing BCAs.                        The need to carefully evaluate pesticides for     and accounted for. Growers are sometimes
                                                                                                   surprised to learn that some plant growth
Biocontrol programs take time to design               The need to carefully                        regulators and surfactants can also have
and execute properly. The ability to apply           evaluate pesticides for                       unexpected negative effects on BCAs.
a compatible pesticide to combat a hot            use in biocontrol programs                       GGSPro encourages BCA users to identify
spot or surge in pest activity may help             is driven home by some                         compatible pesticide options well in
preserve a program that’s already well                of the misconceptions                        advance; don’t wait until the biocontrol
underway. One key to success is the                                                                program is threatened to start researching
ability to determine which pesticide(s)                 growers may have                           options! The ability to react quickly may
are suitable, taking into account which                  about BCA safety.                         mean the difference between salvaging
BCAs are in use. Some good sources are                                                             the program and losing control of the pest
available for this information, including        use in biocontrol programs is driven home         population. This is planning to succeed,
biocontrol companies, university/extension       by some of the misconceptions growers             not planning to fail! GGSPro is a resource
research and pesticide companies. There          may have about BCA safety. It might seem          that Griffin customers can rely on for
is safety in utilizing multiple sources          logical to assume that pesticides classified      all aspects of their biocontrol program,
whenever possible, as there isn’t always         as bio-rational or organic would have             including consideration of compatible
full agreement. GGSPro utilizes all of these     good compatibility with BCAs. While that’s        pesticide options.
resources in maintaining our database            sometimes the case, all too often it’s not.
of BCA-pesticide compatibility. This             OMRI-listed organic pesticides such as the        1 Adapted from: “Compatibility Conflict: Is the
information is updated periodically, as          neem-based IGRs, M-Pede insecticidal              Use of Biological Control Agents with Pesticides a
more information becomes available.              soap, horticultural oils and fungicides           Viable Management Strategy?”- R. Cloyd, Kansas
                                                                                                   State University
Toxicity Legend
       Toxic             > 75% mortality         GGSPro BCA Compatibility Chart – Insecticide Sprays
       Moderately Toxic  50-75% mortality
       Slightly Toxic    25-50% mortality                                          COLOR KEY       LIFESTAGE KEY     NUMBER IN COLORED BOX
       Safe              < 25% mortality                                                                             Number of weeks
                                                                                                                     residual toxicity to
                                                                                   Toxic I Immature                  indicated BCA

The term “compatible pesticides”, needs                                            Moderately Toxic A Adult
some explanation. In the chart above you
can see that even “safe” pesticides might                                          Slightly Toxic
cause up to 25% mortality to the particular
BCA in use. Furthermore, mortality is not                                          Safe
the only consideration. Sub-lethal effects
may include repellency that influences the                                                                                                                    Aphidius
ability of parasitoid or predator to locate the                                                                                                            colemani
pest. Residues from the pesticide on the                                                                                                          Aphidioletes
host may make them unacceptable to the                                                                                                        aphidimyza
BCAs.1 Other significant sub-lethal effects                                                                                           Aphelinus
may include reduced ability to forage for                                                                                          abdominalis
hosts, sterilizing females and reduced egg                                                                                Amblyseius
laying. All things considered, compatible
pesticides need to be used with caution                                                                               swirskii
and only when other reasonable options                                                                        Amblyseius
have been exhausted. Continued research
in this area will yield better decision-making                                                             cucumeris
information for growers.                                                                          Amblyseius
Toxicity isn’t the only consideration when                                                     californicus
evaluating pesticides for suitability within                                          Amblyseius
a biocontrol program. We must also con-
sider the length of time in which a pesticide                                      andersoni
produces negative effects. Pesticides
based on soaps and oils may have very            Product                           IAIAIAIAIAIAIA
short residual side effects, a week or less      1300 Orthene TR
in some cases. Synthetic pyrethroids (e.g.,      1600 X-clude Formula 2                            4 12 12 12 12 12
Decathlon, Talstar), organophosphates            Acephate 79UP
(e.g., Acephate, Duraguard) and carba-           Akari 5SC                                         11                111
mates (e.g., Mesurol, Sevin) can negatively      Ardent EC
                                                 Aria 50% WDG                                      4 12 12 12 12 12
                                                 Attain TR
                                                 Avid                              333                                                      3
                                                 Azatin XL                         2222332
                                                 Azatin O

                                                                                   12 12 12 12 12 12 12


                                                 GGSPro BCA compatibilty database

                                                                                                   Griffin Gazette winter 2017                                          11
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