Page 20 - Griffin Gazette Spring 2017
P. 20

                            FOR GREENHOUSES

Joanne Lutz, GGSPro Technical Support Specialist                            of the card is in the crop canopy. Attach cards on bamboo stakes
                                                                            using clothespins and place them vertically in the crop. Don’t forget
Numerous benefits can be realized by setting up an Integrated Pest          to number and date each card and location. This will help when
Management (IPM) scouting program. One goal is risk mitigation.             transferring the information onto data sheets and assist in tracking
Insects and diseases can dramatically reduce a plant’s quality              pest population trends. Be sure to also utilize both sides of cards,
and market value. Cultural and nutritional practices also influence         to determine directional movement of flying insects.
a plant’s susceptibility to pest attack and its ability to fend off
those attacks. Before you grow any crop, educate yourself on                Remember, insects caught on sticky cards may look different than
the ideal growing conditions, irrigation and fertility requirements.        living insects. A good reference picture ID sheet is available from
Be aware of potential pests and be prepared in advance for how              GGSPro to assist those learning to ID the primary insects caught
you’ll respond if trouble starts. Scouting requires time, and time          on sticky cards. Sticky cards can be messy to handle but by storing
is money, so prioritize those crops that need more attention                these cards in the refrigerator, makes them easier to handle. When
than others.                                                                it’s time to take counts from the cards, stretching plastic wrap over
                                                                            the card will allow you to get close with a hand lens without getting
Another benefit of IPM is to optimize pest control in an economically,      stuck to the card.
socially and ecologically sound way. Early detection of pests allows
for greater use of cultural and biological control measures. It is                            During whole-plant inspections, a
through weekly scouting, good record keeping and treatment
evaluation that you’ll learn how to quickly identify pest problems                            common rule of thumb is to inspect
and make effective control decisions.
                                                                                              10-20 plants per 1,000 sq. ft., walking

                                                                                              down an aisle in a zig-zag pattern. Not

A motivated and dedicated person is needed to take ownership of                               all pests will be found equally through a
the IPM scouting program. Whether it is dedicated employees or
professional IPM scouts, their top priority should be scouting for                            crop, so target inspections to examine
early detection of pests. Scouting involves inspecting the crop for
eggs and all life stages, as well as determining if beneficial insects or   Plant inspection  plants in the beginning, middle and end
mites are present. After the scouting is completed, the information         using OptiVisor   of a bench; along the aisle ways and from
must then be formalized and recorded to provide the grower with                               the middle of the bench. Pick up at least
a clear, accurate picture of what, where and how many pests are
                                                                                              3 plants from each bench and examine
                                 present. Lastly, an informed decision can
                                 be made to treat the predominant life      them plant starting at the crown. Inspect the entire foliage canopy;
                                 stage present.
                                                                            examine both leaf surfaces, growing tips, buds and blooms. Include

                                                                            an examination of the root zone in your routine for soil dwelling

                                                                            insects and mites. Use a 16X hand lens or OptiVisor to assist in

                                                                            identification of immature insects and/or mites. If identification on

                    Various methods can be employed                         the spot is not possible, collect a sample for further investigation.
                    to help growers identify changes in
                    pest populations. The most common                       Digital images can be saved to help in future diagnostic work.
                    approaches are explained in detail below:
                                                                            During this visual inspection, think carefully about what a normal,

IPM scout                                                                   healthy plant looks like. Take notice if there is a problem and note

                                                                            any specific symptoms or signs visible. Observe if there’s an overall

1) Install yellow or blue sticky cards                                      injury pattern and what portion of the plant is affected.

2) Whole-plant inspections                                                                    A beating tray, which is a piece of white

3) The “beat test”                                                                            paper on a clip board, can be used to help

                                                                                              identify and quantify insects. Gently tap

4) Indicator/trap plants                                                                      the plants’ foliage with your hand over the

5) Potato discs                                                                               beating tray to dislodge any insects and

                                        Sticky cards are                    Beating tray      mites present. Then lightly blow any debris
                                                                                              off the paper to leave behind the insects to
                                        used to monitor flying
                                                                            identify. The most common insects found using the beat test are
                                        insects such as thrips,
                                                                            aphids, spider mites and thrips.
                                        whitefly, fungus gnats,
                                                                            Aphids can range in color from green, light yellowish green,
                                        shoreflies, winged                  orange, reddish-brown, pink to red. They have pear-shaped soft
                                                                            bodies with two (2) cornicles (tailpipes) at the rear abdomen. The
                                        aphids and several                  legs and antennae are typically long and winged or wingless forms
                                                                            may be present.
                                        beneficial insects.

                                        The most important

                                        component of using

                                        sticky cards is that

Yellow sticky card                      they be examined and
                                        changed each week

                                        to provide you with

up-to-date information. Cards allowed to stay in place for weeks

or longer yield little useful information. Place cards at 1-2/1,000 sq.     Wingless melon    Winged
                                                                            aphid             aphid
ft. for most crops and 2-4/1,000 sq. ft. for highly sensitive crops.

Place cards near vent openings and attach them so the bottom 1/3

Bonus Digital Content
   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25